Creating a Custom Table with PHP in WordPress

07 Apr

Creating a Custom Table with PHP in WordPress

Have you anytime contemplated the stuff to make a custom table utilizing WordPress improvement administrations or why you would ever need or need to? WordPress goes with a wide scope of ways to deal with store data out-of-the-container. Luckily for us, WordPress is versatile enough that we aren’t constrained to shoehorn every one of our needs into the moment courses of action that go with it.

As a PHP application that depends upon MySQL, we moreover have the option of making our tables in the database to address our issues even more completely. From time to time what might be a perfect response for the MVP or 1.0 presumably won’t be the right choice concerning the item progresses.

At this moment, walk around the path toward making a custom table, similarly as an upgrade routine without a doubt.


As a planner in the WordPress space, something I acknowledge is contributing my open-source adventures. One of the most remarkable of these is my WP CLI Login Command adventure, which is a group for WP-CLI that licenses you to make “charm” login joins for your site. On the off chance that you’re a Delicious Brains customer, you may have seen an association like this is a part of the messages we pass on.

I starting late started reevaluating a couple of parts of the group fully expecting kicking things off on the accompanying noteworthy version, which drove me to reexamine where and how the request stores its data in WordPress.

Proceeding, we’ll use this endeavor for example of a codebase that could benefit by using a custom table. We won’t get exorbitantly significant into the pack, yet use it as a rational model for the setting.


Before we get into making a custom table, it’s basic to consider whether this is the right course of action or not for your stand-out condition.

One way to deal with pushing toward this is by taking a gander at your ideal piece (the structure your data will have in your phenomenal custom tables) and the available chart given by WordPress.

Does your creation fit dexterously with the model of a Post? For instance, Does your data model have or need a title, fundamental substance, made or balanced at timestamps, or slug? Expecting this is the situation, you may be in a perfect circumstance using a custom post type. WordPress itself uses post types for things which you may never have figured it would, for instance, nav menu things and customizer portrayal changesets!

Improves fit a key-regard layout? WordPress has numerous other options (no figure of speech arranged) concerning essential key-regard amassing. Customer, post, term, and comment metadata, vagrants, decisions, and article store APIs fill this need (and that is excluding multisite).

The issue with posts, metadata, and other moment WordPress consistency procedures is that the structure is fixed. An option simply has one fragment to store the value. The proportional goes for a wide scope of meta, wanderers, and stores. To store a non-unrefined worth like a display, we’re constrained to serialize it or break the motivation into different keys (for instance various lines in the database). Perhaps one of the basic points of interest of using a custom table is that we never again need to serialize the data.

Serializing is OK for limit, anyway unbelievably decreases our ability to feasibly request it. Using your table lets you structure the best blueprint for your necessities. This gives all of you a circumstance in scrutinizing your data and can be astounding.


While making another table, it is basic to get the development right the principal go through as this can be a misery to change later. The blueprint looks like the arrangement for the table. We need to describe each segment, similarly to any attributes which may apply to it. For the Login Command, we will require the going with fragments:

  • public_key – The key used in the charm URL.
  • private_key – The riddle key for login approval.
  • user_id – The ID of the customer that the charm login will approve.
  • created_at – The date and time that the login was made.
  • expires_at – The date and time that the login slips.

Making another table in the database used by WordPress is as fundamental as creating the SQL announcement to make it, and thereafter passing that into the dbDelta work. While not an essential to use, the limit is endorsed when making changes to the database as it examines the current table structure, takes a gander at it to the perfect table structure, and either incorporate or modifies the table as fundamental.

Note that you should all things considered use $wpdb->prefix while referencing a table name in the WordPress database. This prefix is customer configurable and commonly described in your wp-config.php. We are using the base_prefix right now we are simply making a single table for all customer logins (like customers). On multisite presents, the $wpdb->prefix will contain the blog ID in the prefix for the current website page (for instance wp_2_, wp_99_, etc.) though base_prefix will reliably be proportional to the principal webpage (for instance wp_) paying little psyche to the current website. A solitary site presents base_prefix and prefix will reliably be the proportionate. In case your custom table will contain site-unequivocal data, you ought to use a prefix to ensure the table is made for each subsite on multisite.

The dbDelta work furthermore requires that the SQL enunciation you go to sticks to a few extra standards. These are basic to the study as it will cause regardless of authentic SQL to bomb the limit’s parsing and endorsement.

One issue you may run into while making the table as I did, is a bungle thusly:

WordPress database screw up Specified key was too much long; max key length is 767 bytes for request

This is an error you will get while deciding the most extraordinary length of 255 for a varchar or small content area. Since this is repression in bytes, the best length is differing depending upon the character set of the table. Gary Pendergast (a.k.a. @pento) explains in the source:


An upgrade routine is a method that is expected to revive a structure’s state from an increasingly prepared variation to a more exceptional one. You’re familiar with WordPress’ screen affecting for a database update between critical releases:

A refreshed routine need not be unequivocal in playing out a methodology on the database, yet this is possibly the most notable use-case. It includes two essential parts: a trigger and the process(es).

The trigger is ordinarily a fundamental adjustment check which can run on load or a particular catch, much of the time at a perfect time in a given requesting lifecycle. Get your current database variation from the database (WordPress focus stores its database version number in the db_version decision; don’t change this), differentiate and the adjustment of the stacked module/point, etc. In case the saved adjustment isn’t the presented interpretation, proceed with the upgrade routine and update the saved database structure when it’s set. This is the most basic basis yet additional checks may be significant while controlling what routine should flee if you have extraordinary.

We’ll show WordPress’ interpretation dealing with our own decision, and basically, store a clear entire number for our database variation.


The hugeness of when the overhaul routine runs will depend, all things considered, upon the update and what it will do. This is especially critical due to the synchronous thought of PHP; we ought to know about to what degree it will take. At this moment, a table is an unimportant proportion of time so there’s not a ton to worry over — yet rather when to do it? Since this will change the way logins are taken care of it needs to happen before another login can be made. The code in the request will be changed to use the new table, so if the update doesn’t run the database question to implant the record into the custom table would detonate because there is no table until the upgrade runs.

WordPress advancement organization checks its inside database structure on each pile of wp-executive/admin.php. In case the saved database structure isn’t the described current variation (portrayed in wp-consolidates/version.php) by then you’re redirected to the above update screen. Most modules don’t constrain the customer to encounter a blocking strategy like this to revive the database, nonetheless, doing so permits the customer to fortify their database first for example. Getting things done thusly in like manner requires that your new code is backward immaculate with the old way. This kind of methodology can in like manner run far out, without irritating the customer to do anything.

At this moment, request class starting at now has a technique called ensurePluginRequirementsMet which is run before another login is made. This at present watches that the companion server module is presented and that its variation satisfies the version required by the request. If it doesn’t, by then the request bungles out with rules about how to invigorate the presented module (with another request!). This seems like a perfect spot to watch that the database is forefront and upgrade it if key.


The last development is to invigorate the present code in the request which loads and extras the data that was as of late set aside in a transient. Since these exercises have been given their procedures, there are only a lot of squares of code that need to change.


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